Defense Advanced Research Projects AgencyTagged Content List

Satellites

Related to manmade objects placed in Earth orbit for military, commercial or scientific use

Showing 33 results for Satellites + Space RSS
01/01/2000
DARPA initiated a microsatellite program featuring extremely small microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) radio frequency (RF) switches. The first picosat mission, launched on January 26, 2000, demonstrated MEMS RF switches operating on a pair of tethered satellites, each one weighing just over one pound. The program demonstrated how constellations of small satellites could work together in the future with dramatically reduced size and power requirements.
01/01/1989
DARPA initiated a Small Standard Launch Vehicle (SSLV) program that led to the Taurus, a launch vehicle designed to supply the Department of Defense with quick-response, low-cost launch of tactical satellites from ground facilities. The initial DARPA model was first test-launched in 1989 and first used operationally in 1994. The prime contractor subsequently offered the vehicle in four versions.
01/01/1959

Initiated by ARPA in 1958 and transferred to NASA in 1959, the Television and Infrared Observations Satellites (TIROS) program became the prototype for the current global systems used for weather reporting, forecasting and research by the Defense Department, NASA and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Moreover, TIROS helped define ARPA’s model of successfully bringing together scientists and engineers from different services, federal agencies, and contracting firms to solve vexing problems and quickly achieve a complex technical feat.

The program greatly advanced the science of meteorology by placing the first dedicated weather satellite in orbit, TIROS 1, on April 1, 1960. The mission swiftly proved the viability of observing weather from space. It took 23,000 cloud-cover pictures, of which more than 19,000 were used in weather analysis. For the first time, meteorologists were able to track storms over the course of several days.

01/01/1960

ARPA launched the first satellite in what would become the world's first global satellite navigation system. Known as Transit, the system provided accurate, all-weather navigation to both military and commercial vessels, including most importantly the U.S. Navy’s ballistic missile submarine force.

Transit, whose concept and technology were developed by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, established the basis for wide acceptance of satellite navigation systems. The system's surveying capabilities—generally accurate to tens of meters—contributed to improving the accuracy of maps of the Earth's land areas by nearly two orders of magnitude.

ARPA funded the Transit program in 1958, launched its first satellite in 1960, and transitioned the technology to the Navy in the mid-1960s. By 1968, a fully operational constellation of 36 satellites was in place. Transit operated for 28 years until 1996, when the Defense Department replaced it with the current Global Positioning System (GPS).

01/01/1963

The ARPA Vela program developed sensors to detect nuclear explosions in space, the upper atmosphere, and underwater to support the 1963 Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, under which the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union banned atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. The first VELA sensors, deployed on a pair of satellites launched three days after the treaty was signed, were designed to monitor for optical and electromagnetic signatures of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere.

Later in the 1960s and 1970s, DARPA oversaw the development of the World Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN) for detecting underground nuclear tests. The Agency also helped expand detection technologies globally and internationally by running workshops, funding research projects in other countries, and championing community-building initiatives.