Defense Advanced Research Projects AgencyTagged Content List


Related to manmade objects placed in Earth orbit for military, commercial or scientific use

Showing 34 results for Satellites RSS
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Hubble Telescope takes the clearest images of the universe and transmits these to Earth via its antennas. From 1978 to 1980, DARPA funded the design, fabrication, delivery and installation of two antenna booms for the Hubble Space Telescope to demonstrate the advantages of metal-matrix composites. Made of a graphite-fiber/aluminum matrix, these booms permit radio frequency conduction while simultaneously serving as structural supports. Deploying this dual-use composite material resulted in a 60% weight savings over an alternative boom- design candidate. Through this new material technology, DARPA met NASA’s design requirements for weight, stiffness, and dimensional stability. DARPA also contributed to the Hubble’s optical successes. The telescope incorporates algorithms and concepts pioneered by DARPA’s Directed Energy Program in the late 1970s and early 1980s, by which mirrors can be deliberately deformed to correct for wavefront imperfections.
One of the world’s earliest and most well-known spy satellite programs, the now declassified Corona photo-reconnaissance program was jointly funded by DARPA and the Central Intelligence Agency. Withstanding a series of initial failures, the program scored its first success in August 1960 when a canister of film dropped back through the atmosphere was successfully recovered, delivering a trove of intelligence photos taken over Soviet territory. The Corona program continued to acquire crucial Cold War intelligence until the mission ended in 1972.
Launched on July 13, 1994, the 198-kg DARPASAT demonstrated the possibility of placing in orbit a lightweight, low-cost payload for enhancing operational defense and warfighting capabilities. The primary performer, Ball Aerospace, oversaw the design, fabrication, integration, and testing of the spacecraft bus, which carried two government-supplied payloads. With frugal management of battery use and thermal loads, DARPASAT surpassed its mission goal of a three-year lifetime by lasting for eight years.

The goal of the Global Low Orbiting Message Relay (GLOMR) satellite (aka CHEAPSAT) program was to demonstrate the feasibility of building a two-way, digital data communication satellite capable of performing important military missions for less than a million dollars in under a year. The broader objective was to demonstrate low-cost satellite construction technology that could pave the way for future satellites performing diverse missions.

Under DARPA sponsorship, Defense Systems, Inc. (DSI) designed and developed GLOMR. The spacecraft was placed into orbit from a getaway special canister (or GASCAN) aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger (Mission 61-A, Spacelab D-1) on October 30, 1985, and operated successfully on orbit for over 14 months, before it fell back into the Earth’s atmosphere.

A series of tests, including the use of a portable access terminal at DARPA, were conducted between Washington, D.C., and Santa Barbara, California, demonstrating two-way, cross-country communications via GLOMR. DARPA assisted in transitioning the capability of, and lessons learned from, the GLOMR program to the Defense Department (DoD) and other government agencies.

The GLOMR program demonstrated the feasibility of low-cost satellites. This spacecraft served as a model for many DoD and non-DoD uses, including communications, tracking of beacons, remote- sensor readout, and classified applications.

The goal of the Orbital Express Space Operations Architecture program was to validate the technical feasibility of robotic, autonomous on-orbit refueling and reconfiguration of satellites to support a broad range of future U.S. national security and commercial space programs. Refueling satellites would enable them to frequently maneuver to improve coverage, improve survivability, as well as extend satellite lifetime. Electronics upgrades on-orbit would provide regular performance improvements and dramatically reduce the time to deploy new technology.