Defense Advanced Research Projects AgencyTagged Content List

Transformative Materials

Relating to new or improved properties in materials

Showing 131 results for Materials RSS
In the 1960s and early 1970s ARPA funded Interdisciplinary Laboratories (IDLs) at a dozen universities, helping to create a catalytic new research field known as materials science and engineering.
New materials that perform better than previous ones or with unprecedented properties open pathways to new and improved technologies. F-15 and F-16 fighter aircraft, still in use by the U.S. Air Force today, owe much of their performance advancements to materials technologies that emerged from DARPA materials development programs conducted in the 1970s and early 1980s. One of many notable successes from these efforts was the development of rare-earth permanent magnets with magnetic strengths far stronger than conventional magnetic materials and, in some cases, over larger operational conditions. The samarium- and cobalt-based rare-earth magnetic material Sm2Co17, for example, remains reliable over the entire militarily relevant temperature range of -55°C to 125°C. These magnets ultimately assumed a role in a key component of the AN/ALQ-135 electronic warfare system, permitting operation of the F-15 to 70,000 feet in altitude.
The microelectronics revolution led to a ubiquity of fingernail-sized chips bearing integrated circuits made of large numbers of tiny transistors, interconnects, and other miniaturized components and devices. DARPA challenged the research community to achieve the tight integration of chips to the scale of the entire semiconductor wafer from which, normally, hundreds of chips would be diced and then packaged into separate components of electronic systems. Among the motivations were the expectations of higher computation or storage capability in a smaller volumes, higher-reliability systems; and reduced power consumption of the wafer-based systems. The research included work in materials, defect management, manufacturing techniques, among other areas. The approach opened up novel engineering opportunities particularly for fabricating multi-element, phased-array, antenna modules on gallium-arsenide wafer for both transmitting and receiving signals.

The December 1984 test flight of the X-29—the most aerodynamically unstable aircraft ever built—demonstrated forward-swept wing technology for supersonic fighter aircraft for the first time. Technology breakthroughs, among them a digital fly-by-wire flight-control system and carbon-fiber wing technology, made possible a lightweight design far more maneuverable than conventional aircraft. DARPA, NASA, and the U.S. Air Force jointly developed two X-29 technology demonstration aircraft, which the Air Force acquired in March 1985 and used for 279 test flights by April 1990.

Although Air Force fighter designs ultimately embraced DARPA’s stealth revolution rather than the high maneuverability promised by forward-swept wings, other X-29 technologies found their way into future aircraft. Advanced composite materials are now used extensively in military and commercial aircraft. Aeroelastic tailoring to resist twisting under flight loads is now a standard tool for advanced designs with relevant outcomes including the long, thin wings of the Global Hawk, an unmanned surveillance aircraft.

The intensity of light that propagates through glass optical fiber is fundamentally limited by the glass itself. A novel fiber design using a hollow, air-filled core removes this limitation and dramatically improves performance by forcing light to travel through channels of air, instead of the glass around it. DARPA’s unique spider-web-like, hollow-core fiber, design is the first to demonstrate single-spatial-mode, low-loss and polarization control—key properties needed for advanced military applications such as high-precision fiber optic gyroscopes for inertial navigation.